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  • 侯娜,刘晓宇.【邀请论文】美国2021财年国防高科技预算提案解析[J].国防科技,2020,41(4):42-51    [点击复制]
  • HOU Na,LIU Xiaoyu.Defense Hi-tech budget request of FY2021 of US[J].National Defense Technology,2020,41(4):42-51   [点击复制]
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【邀请论文】美国2021财年国防高科技预算提案解析
侯娜,刘晓宇
(中央财经大学国防经济与管理研究院)
摘要:
美国总统特朗普向国会提交的2021财年总统预算提案中,包含美国国防预算7054亿美元。2021财年美国国防预算聚焦未来高端作战需求,其中国防研发预算提案1066亿美元,主要用于关键新兴科技和先进能力赋能器的研究和发展,成为有史以来最大规模的研发预算。本文系统梳理了2021财年美国国防预算提案的总体情况,并对该提案中涉及科学技术部分的预算进行了分析,在此基础上,解析了人工智能、自主系统、高超声速、5G与量子通信、太空、生物技术与网络安全等重点领域的具体预算。综合美国对重点新兴科技领域大力投资的预算行为,可以看出美国正在进行重点先进技术的多样化融合,实现其军事技术能力的跳跃式提升。面对美国高强度的国防高科技预算提案,中国应做足准备做到“知己知彼”。
关键词:  国防预算提案  国防科学技术预算  先进能力赋能器
DOI:10.13943/j.issn 1671-4547.2020.04.08
基金项目:北京高校高精尖学科“战略经济与军民融合”交叉学科支持项目(GJJ2019163)、中央财经大学双一流和特色发展引导学科专项(022959918005)
Defense Hi-tech budget request of FY2021 of US
Abstract:
President Donald J. Trump sent Congress a proposed FY2021 budget request for national security,including $705.4 billion for the Department of Defense,mainly focusing on future high-end operational demand. DoD’s FY2021 research and development budget of $106.6 billion is the largest ever requested and focused on the development of crucial emerging technologies and advanced capability enablers. This paper systematically analyzes the general facts of the US DoD budget request for FY2021 and the budget request of Defense Science and Technology specifically. Then budgets of some key areas are analyzed,including artificial intelligence,autonomy,hypersonics,5G and quantum communications,space,biotechnology,cyber security,etc. Based on the budget behavior of investing in crucial emerging technologies,it is concluded that the United States is carrying out diversified integration of key advanced technologies to achieve a leaping improvement in military technology capabilities. In the face of the high-intensity defense high-tech budget request of the United States,China should make sufficient preparations to “know oneself and know the other”.
Key words:  Defense budget request  Defense S&T Budget  Advanced Capability Enablers